A holographic cosmological model with a power-law term has been proposed by a researcher to study thermodynamic properties on the horizon of the Universe. This model was found to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics. In addition, a relaxation-like process of the Universe was examined systematically to study maximization of the entropy on the horizon.
The expansion of the Universe has occupied the minds of astronomers and astrophysicists for decades. Among the cosmological models that have been suggested over the years, Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) models are the simplest models that can provide elegant explanations of the properties of the Universe, e.g., the accelerated expansion of the late Universe and structural formations. However, the LCDM model suffers from several theoretical difficulties, such as the cosmological constant problem. To resolve these difficulties, alternative thermodynamic scenarios have recently been proposed that extend the concept of black hole thermodynamics.
“Previous research implies that a certain type of universe will behave like an ordinary macroscopic system. The expansion of the Universe is considered likely to be related to thermodynamics on its horizon, based on the holographic principle,” explains the study’s author, Kanazawa University’s Nobuyoshi Komatsu.
“I considered a cosmological model with a power-law term, assuming application of the holographic equipartition law. The power-law term is proportional to Hα, where H is the Hubble parameter and α is considered to be a free parameter (α may be related to the entanglement of the quantum fields close to the horizon).”
“I used the proposed model to study the thermodynamic properties on the horizon of the Universe, focusing on the evolutions of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. I found that the model satisfies the second law of thermodynamics on the horizon,” says Associate Professor Komatsu.
“In addition, I used the model to examine the relaxation-like processes that occur before the last stage of the evolution of the Universe and thus enable study of the maximization of the entropy.”
It is hoped that the developed model will serve to enable discussion and analysis of the wide range of currently available cosmological models from a thermodynamics perspective.